PSD-1/2 — HAFR-1

In 1995 it was reported that a Rockeye dispenser upgrade was being developed at Pakistan’s Air Weapons Complex (AWC), under the designation PSD-2. The new weapon is an update of the earlier PSD-1 programmable weapon dispenser, which itself was based on the B-1 Rockeye variant originally licensed to AWC by the ISC organisation (now Ferranti International). The PSD-1 had anti-handling and programmable electronic fuzing facilities (with extended 72 hour delay setting option) added to the anti-personnel/anti-material submunitions it carried. The latest PSD-2 dispenser differs in that it has been adapted to allow it to carry a new combined effects munition that reportedly gives the weapon a superior armour penetration capability.

In 1996 information was released on an anti-runway weapon, designated HAFR-1, that was being manufactured and offered for export by the Air Weapons Complex of Pakistan. Development details of the bomb are not known, but the weapon is similar in appearance to the French Durandal and some Western analysts believe HAFR-1 could well be the Durandal built under licence in Pakistan for use on its F-16 and Mirage aircraft. The HAFR-1 is similar in appearance to a small modern air-to-surface missile. It has a cylindrical body, a dome shaped nose and four fixed, clipped swept delta rear stabilising fins just forward of a tail-mounted drag parachute unit. The bomb has distinctive large manacle rings joining the front two sections, to which are attached two suspension lugs spaced 356 mm apart. The bomb consists of four main subassemblies: the warhead situated at the front end and weighing around 100 kg; the ignition system, located immediately behind the warhead and controlling the sequence of operations; the solid propellant booster motor attached to the warhead by the manacle ring; and the parachute section, attached to the rear skirt of the booster by a jettisonable clamp ring and containing two parachutes (deceleration and main). Following the release of the bomb from the parent aircraft, the small deceleration parachute is deployed braking the weapon until the main parachute can be deployed without damage. This in turn rapidly decelerates the bomb to a speed of 0.45 m/s. When the HAFR-1 reaches a height of around 76 m (250 ft) the parachute braking system is jettisoned which triggers the arming of the warhead and the firing of the booster motor which rapidly accelerates the warhead to more than 280 m/s. At impact the contact fuze is activated and after a short delay the warhead explodes. The detonation of the warhead from beneath the runway surface results in a crater surrounded by a large area where slabs have been raised and cracked. The release speed envelope for the launcher aircraft is quoted as being between 450 to 600 kt IAS. HAFR-1 has been seen carried by F-16 aircraft of the Pakistan Air Force and was displayed and offered for export in 1996.

HAFR-1 on display in May 1996