Westland Lynx HAS 3

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COSTS: £3.5 million (1991) to upgrade eight Mk 7s to Mk 9s. £20 million (1992) to convert seven Mk 3s to Mk 8s; £150 million for nine new Lynx and five upgrades, 1993 (Brazil). £100 million for seven Mk 88As (Germany), 1996.

DESIGN FEATURES: Compact design suited to hunter-killer ASW and missile-armed anti-ship naval roles from frigates or larger ships (superseding ship-guided helicopters), armed/unarmed land roles with cabin large enough for squad, or other tasks; manually folding tail pylon on naval versions; single four-blade semi-rigid main rotor (foldable), each blade attached to main rotor hub by titanium root plates and flexible arm; rotor drives taken from front of engines into main gearbox mounted above cabin ahead of engines; in flight, accessory gears (at front of main gearbox) driven by one of two through shafts from first stage reduction gears; four-blade tail rotor, drive taken from main ring gear; single large window in each main cabin sliding door; provision for internally mounted armament, and for exterior universal flange mounting each side for other weapons/stores. Super Lynx has maximum T-O weight of 5,125 kg (11,300 lb); all-weather day/night capability; extended payload/range; advanced technology swept-tip (BERP) composites main rotor blades offering improved speed and aerodynamic efficiency and reduced vibration; and reversed direction tail rotor for improved control.

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FLYING CONTROLS: Rotor head controls actuated by three identical tandem servojacks and powered by two independent hydraulic systems; control system incorporates simple stability augmentation system; each engine embodies independent control system providing full-authority rotor speed governing, pilot control being limited to selection of desired rotor speed range; in event of one engine failure, system restores power up to single-engine maximum contingency rating; main rotor can provide negative thrust to increase stability on deck after touchdown on naval versions; hydraulically operated rotor brake mounted on main gearbox; sweptback fin/tail rotor pylon, with starboard half-tailplane.

STRUCTURE: Conventional semi-monocoque pod and boom, mainly light alloy; glass fibre access panels, doors, fairings, pylon leading/trailing-edges, and bullet fairing over tail rotor gearbox; composites main rotor blades; main rotor hub and inboard flexible arm portions built as complete unit, as titanium monobloc forging; tail rotor blades have light alloy spar, stainless steel leading-edge sheath and rear section as for main blades.

LANDING GEAR (general purpose military version): Non-retractable tubular skid type. Provision for a pair of adjustable ground handling wheels on each skid. Flotation gear optional. Battlefield Lynx and AH. Mk 9 equivalent have non-retractable tricycle gear with twin nosewheels.

LANDING GEAR (naval versions): Non-retractable oleo-pneumatic tricycle type. Single-wheel main units, carried on sponsons, fixed at 27° toe-out for deck landing; can be manually turned into line and locked fore and aft for movement of aircraft into and out of ship’s hangar. Twin-wheel nose unit steered hydraulically through 90° by the pilot to facilitate independent take-off into wind. Sprag brakes (wheel locks) fitted to each wheel prevent rotation on landing or inadvertent deck roll. These locks disengaged hydraulically and re-engage automatically in event of hydraulic failure. Maximum vertical descent 1.83 m (6 ft)/s; with lateral drift 0.91 m (3 ft)/s for deck landing. Flotation gear, and hydraulically actuated harpoon deck lock securing system, optional.

POWER PLANT: Current option of two Rolls-Royce Gem 42-1 turboshafts, each rated at 835 kW (1,120 shp) or two LHTEC CTS800s, each of 995 kW (1,334 shp). Transmission rating 1,372 kW (1,840 shp). Exhaust diffusers for IR suppression optional on Battlefield Lynx. Original installation was two Rolls-Royce Gem 2 turboshafts, each with maximum contingency rating of 671 kW (900 shp) in Lynx AH. 1, HAS. 2 and early export variants. Later versions had Gem 41-1, 41-2, or 42-1 engines, all with maximum contingency rating of 835 kW (1,120 shp); same transmission rating. Engines of British and French Lynx in service converted to Mk 42 standard during regular overhauls from 1987 onwards. Danish, Netherlands and Norwegian Lynx similarly retrofitted. Fuel in five internal tanks; usable capacity 957 litres (253 US gallons; 210 Imp gallons) when gravity-refuelled; 985 litres (260 US gallons; 217 Imp gallons) when pressure-refuelled. For ferrying, two tanks each of 441 litres (116 US gallons; 97 Imp gallons) in cabin, replacing bench tank. Maximum usable fuel 1,867 litres (493 US gallons; 411 Imp gallons). Engine oil tank capacity 6.8 litres (1.8 US gallons; 1.5 Imp gallons). Main rotor gearbox oil capacity 28 litres (7.4 US gallons; 6.2 Imp gallons).

ACCOMMODATION: Pilot and co-pilot or observer on side by side seats. Dual controls optional. Individual forward-hinged cockpit door and large rearward-sliding cabin door on each side; cockpit doors jettisonable; windows of cabin doors also jettisonable. Cockpit accessible from cabin area. Maximum high-density layout (military version) for one pilot and 10 armed troops or paratroops, on lightweight bench seats in soundproofed cabin. Alternative VIP layouts for four to seven passengers, with additional cabin soundproofing. Seats can be removed quickly to permit carriage of up to 907 kg (2,000 lb) of freight internally. Tiedown rings provided. In casualty evacuation role, with a crew of two, Lynx can accommodate up to six Alphin stretchers and a medical attendant. Both basic versions have secondary capability for search and rescue (up to nine survivors) and other roles.

SYSTEMS: Two independent hydraulic systems, pressure 141 bars (2,050 lb/sq in). Third hydraulic system provided in naval version when sonar equipment, MAD or hydraulic winch system installed. No pneumatic system. 28 V DC electrical power supplied by two 6 kW engine-driven starter/generators and an alternator. External power sockets. 24 V 23 Ah (optionally 40 Ah) Ni/Cd battery fitted for essential services and emergency engine starting. 200 V three-phase AC power available at 400 Hz from two 15 kVA transmission-driven alternators. Cabin heating and ventilation system. Optional supplementary cockpit heating system. Electric anti-icing and demisting of windscreen, and electrically operated windscreen wipers, standard; windscreen washing system.

AVIONICS (general): Avionics common to all roles (general purpose and naval versions). Comms: Collins VOR/ILS; DME; Collins AN/ARN-118 Tacan; I-band transponder (naval version only); GEC-Plessey PTR 446, Collins APX-72, Siemens STR 700/375 or Italtel APX-77 IFF. Flight: GEC-Marconi duplex three-axis automatic stabilisation equipment; BAe GM9 Gyrosyn compass system; Decca tactical air navigation system (TANS); Decca 71 Doppler, E2C standby compass. GEC-Marconi Mk 34 AFCS. Additional units fitted in naval version, when sonar is installed, to provide automatic transition to hover and automatic Doppler hold in hover.

AVIONICS (Army): Flight: Latest versions have Decca Doppler 91 and RNS252 navigation; Honeywell/Smiths AN/APN-198 radar altimeter; Collins 206A ADF; Collins VIR 31A VOR/ILS.

Mission: British Army Lynx equipped with TOW missiles have roof-mounted Hughes sight manufactured under licence by British Aerospace. Roof sight upgraded with night vision capability in far IR waveband; first test firing of TOW with added GEC-Marconi thermal imager took place in October 1988. (Sextant 250 sight offered on export aircraft for fixed armament.) Optional equipment, according to role, can include lightweight sighting system with alternative target magnification, vertical and/or oblique cameras, flares for night operation, low-light level TV, IR linescan, searchlight, and specialised communications equipment. Some have IR formation flying lights and provision for crew’s NVGs. For surveillance, some AAC Lynx carry Chancellor Helitele in external (port) ball housing, complete with datalink.

Self-defence: Sanders AN/ALQ-144 IR jammer installed beneath tailboom of some British Army Lynx from 1987; later augmented by exhaust diffusers. Requirement for RWR satisfied by 1989 selection of GEC-Marconi AWARE-3 (ARI23491) system; GEC-Marconi Sky Guardian Mk 13 (later Mk 15) on some aircraft from 1990.

AVIONICS (Navy): Comms: RN helicopters have two GEC-Marconi AD 3400 VHF/UHF transceivers, Dowty D403M standby UHF radio, Collins 718U-5 HF transceiver, GEC Plessey PTR446 D-band transponder and Pilkington ARI 5983 I-band transponder.

Radar: Super Lynx has Seaspray Mk 3000 or Bendix/King RDR 1500 360° scan radar in chin fairing. (UK Mk 8 has original Seaspray Mk 1 upgraded to Mk 3000 under 1994 contract and repackaged below fuselage, leaving space for GEC-Marconi Sea Owl thermal imaging equipment above nose.) GEC-Marconi ARI5979 Seaspray Mk 1 lightweight search and tracking radar in earlier versions.

Flight: GPS on Royal Navy and Netherlands Lynx from 1997. Mission: Optional Bendix/King AN/AQS-18 or Thomson Sintra HS-312 sonars. Detection of submarines by dipping sonar or magnetic anomaly detector. Dipping sonar operated by hydraulically powered winch and cable hover mode facilities within the AFCS. Racal MIR-2 Orange Crop passive radar detection system in RN Lynx; similar Racal Kestrel retrofitted to Danish Mk 90. (CAE Electronics AN/ASQ-504(V) internal MAD ordered for RN Lynx in 1990 but not taken up.) Matra AF 530 or APX-334 stabilised sight in French naval Lynx. Optional GEC Sandpiper FLIR on RN Lynx; FLIR Systems 2000HP installed in Netherlands SH-14D from 1996; FLIR Systems Safire optional for Danish Lynx. Vinten Vipa 1 reconnaissance pod; or Agiflite reconnaissance camera system.

Self-defence: Tracor M-130 chaff/flare dispensers and Ericsson Radar Electronics AN/ALQ-167(V) D- to J-band anti-ship missile jamming pods installed on RN Lynx patrolling Arabian Gulf, 1987. Two Loral Challenger IR jammers above cockpit of RN Lynx during 1991 Gulf War. RWR in Netherlands SH-14Ds from 1996.

EQUIPMENT: All versions equipped as standard with navigation, cabin and cockpit lights; adjustable landing light under nose; and anti-collision beacon. For search and rescue, with three crew, both versions can have a waterproof floor and a 272 kg (600 lb) capacity clip-on hydraulic hoist on starboard side of cabin. Cable length 30 m (98 ft).

ARMAMENT: For armed escort, anti-tank or air-to-surface strike missions, army version can be equipped with two 20 mm cannon mounted externally so as to permit fitment of pintle-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun inside cabin. External pylon can be fitted on each side of cabin for variety of stores, including two Minigun or other self-contained gun pods; two rocket pods; or up to eight HOT, Hellfire, TOW, or similar air-to-surface missiles. Additional six or eight reload missiles carried in cabin. For ASW role, armament includes two Mk 44, Mk 46, A244S or Sting Ray homing torpedoes, one each on an external pylon on each side of fuselage, and six marine markers; or two Mk 11 depth charges. Alternatively, up to four Sea Skua semi-active homing missiles; on French Navy Lynx, four AS.12 or similar wire-guided missiles. Self-protection FN HMP 0.50 in machine gun pod optional on RN Lynx.

Super Lynx as standard naval Lynx, including four Sea Skua or two Penguin anti-ship missiles. Battlefield Lynx may carry two Giat 20 mm cannon pods; two FN Herstal pods with two 7.62 mm machine guns each; or two M.159C pods containing nineteen 2.75 in rockets each.

DIMENSIONS, EXTERNAL (A: early military version, B: Battlefield Lynx, N: early naval version, S: Super Lynx):

Main rotor diameter 12.80 m (42 ft 0 in)
Tail rotor diameter:
A, N 2.21 m (7 ft 3 in)
B, S 2.36 m (7 ft 9 in)
Length overall: both rotors turning:
A, N 15.165 m (49 ft 9 in)
B, S 15.24 m (50 ft 0 in)
main rotor blades and tail folded:
N 10.62 m (34 ft 10 in)
S 10.85 m (35 ft 7{1/4} in)
B, rotors folded 13.24 m (43 ft 5{1/4} in)
Width overall, main rotor blades folded:
A 3.75 m (12 ft 3{3/4} in)
B 3.02 m (9 ft 11 in)
N, S 2.94 m (9 ft 7{3/4} in)
Height overall: both rotors stopped:
A 3.505 m (11 ft 6 in)
N 3.48 m (11 ft 5 in)
tail rotor turning:
B 3.73 m (12 ft 3 in)
S 3.67 m (12 ft 0{1/2} in)
main rotor blades and tail folded:
N 3.20 m (10 ft 6 in)
S 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in)
Tailplane half-span:
A, N 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in)
B, S 1.32 m (4 ft 4 in)
Skid track: A 2.03 m (6 ft 8 in)
Wheel track: N 2.78 m (9 ft 1{1/2} in)
B, S 2.80 m (9 ft 2{1/4} in)
Wheelbase: N 2.94 m (9 ft 7{3/4} in)
B, S 3.02 m (9 ft 11 in)

DIMENSIONS, INTERNAL:

Cabin, from back of pilots’ seats:
{st} Min length 2.055 m (6 ft 9 in)
Max width 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in)
Max height 1.42 m (4 ft 8 in)
Floor area 3.72 m{2} (40.0 sq ft)
Volume 5.2 m{3} (184 cu ft)
Cabin doorway: Width 1.37 m (4 ft 6 in)
Height 1.19 m (3 ft 11 in)

AREAS:

Main rotor disc 128.71 m{2} (1,385.4 sq ft)
Tail rotor disc: A, N 3.84 m{2} (41.28 sq ft)
B, S 4.37 m (47.04 sq ft)

WEIGHTS AND LOADINGS (A, B, N and S as above):

Manufacturer’s empty weight:
A 2,578 kg (5,683 lb)
N 2,740 kg (6,040 lb)
Manufacturer’s basic weight:
A 2,658 kg (5,860 lb)
B 3,178 kg (7,006 lb)
N 3,030 kg (6,680 lb)
S 3,291 kg (7,255 lb)
Operating weight empty (including crew and appropriate armament):
B, anti-tank (eight TOW) 3,949 kg (8,707 lb)
B, reconnaissance 3,444 kg (7,592 lb)
B, transport (unladen) 3,496 kg (7,707 lb)
S, ASW (two torpedoes) 4,618 kg (10,181 lb)
S, ASV (four Sea Skuas) 4,373 kg (9,641 lb)
S, surveillance and targeting 3,708 kg (8,174 lb)
S, search and rescue 3,778 kg (8,329 lb)
Max underslung load: B, S 1,361 kg (3,000 lb)
Max T-O weight:
A 4,535 kg (10,000 lb)
N (Gem Mk 41) 4,763 kg (10,500 lb)
N (Gem Mk 42) 4,876 kg (10,750 lb)
B, S 5,125 kg (11,300 lb)
Max disc loading:
A 35.2 kg/m{2} (7.22 lb/sq ft)
N (Gem Mk 41) 37.0 kg/m{2} (7.58 lb/sq ft)
N (Gem Mk 42) 37.9 kg/m{2} (7.76 lb/sq ft)
B, S 39.8 kg/m{2} (8.16 lb/sq ft)
Max transmission power loading:
A 3.31 kg/kW (5.43 lb/shp)
N (Gem Mk 41) 3.47 kg/kW (5.71 lb/shp)
N (Gem Mk 42) 3.55 kg/kW (5.84 lb/shp)
B, S 3.74 kg/kW (6.14 lb/shp)

PERFORMANCE (at normal max T-O weight at S/L, ISA, except where indicated Gem 41/42 engines, A, B, N and S as above):

Never-exceed speed (VNE), Mk 9:
clean 156 kt (289 km/h; 180 mph)
IR exhaust diffusers fitted 145 kt (269 km/h; 167 mph)
Max continuous cruising speed:
A 140 kt (259 km/h; 161 mph)
N 125 kt (232 km/h; 144 mph)
A (ISA + 20°C) 130 kt (241 km/h; 150 mph)
N (ISA + 20°C) 114 kt (211 km/h; 131 mph)
S 138 kt (256 km/h; 159 mph)
Speed for max endurance:
A, N (ISA and ISA + 20°C) 70 kt(130 km/h; 81 mph)
Max forward rate of climb: A 756 m (2,480 ft)/min
N 661 m (2,170 ft)/min
A (ISA + 20°C) 536 m (1,760 ft)/min
N (ISA + 20°C) 469 m (1,540 ft)/min
Max vertical rate of climb:
A 472 m (1,550 ft)/min
N 351 m (1,150 ft)/min
A (ISA + 20°C) 390 m (1,280 ft)/min
N (ISA + 20°C) 244 m (800 ft)/min
Hovering ceiling OGE: A 3,230 m (10,600 ft)
N 2,575 m (8,440 ft)
Typical range, with reserves:
A, troop transport 292 n miles (540 km; 336 miles)
B, tactical transport 370 n miles (685 km; 426 miles)
Radius of action:
B, anti-tank, 2 h on station with four TOWs 25 n miles(46 km; 29 miles)
S, anti-submarine, 2 h on station, dipping sonar and one torpedo 20 n miles(37 km; 23 miles)
S, point attack with four Sea Skuas 125 n miles(232 km; 143 miles)
S, surveillance, 3 h 50 min on station 75 n miles(139 km; 86 miles)
Max range:
A 340 n miles (630 km; 392 miles)
N 320 n miles (593 km; 368 miles)
Max ferry range with auxiliary cabin tanks:
A 724 n miles (1,342 km; 834 miles)
N 565 n miles (1,046 km; 650 miles)
Max endurance:
A 2 h 57 min
N (ISA + 20°C) 2 h 50 min


ACTIVE :
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OPERATIONAL SPEED : 120 kt (222 km/h).
SERVICE CEILING : 10,000 ft (3,048 m).
RANGE A/C : 320 n miles (593 km).
ROLE/WEAPON SYSTEMS : Primarily anti-surface helicopter with short-range ASW capability; embarked in all modern RN escorts; update with Sea Owl passive identification and centralised tactical system. Total of 49 to be converted by 2000. Sensors: Ferranti Sea Spray Mk 1 radar, Racal GPS, `Orange Crop’ ESM, chaff and flare dispenser. Weapons: ASW; two Stingray torpedoes or Mk 11 Mod 3 depth bombs. ASV; four Sea Skua missiles; two 12.7 mm MG pods.

ROLE/WEAPON SYSTEMS : Two delivered August 1994 and one in April 1995. Option on three more. Sensors: Ferranti Sea Spray radar, Orange Crop ESM. Weapons: ASW; two Type 244/S torpedoes. ASV; 2 – 12.7 mm MG pods.

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